This ppt contain Immunology PPT power point presentation, slide show.
Immunology power point presentation PPT
IMMUNOLOGY and ONCOLOGY ppt
EMERITA C. MENDOZA, R.N.,
The body’s special defense
against foreign organisms
Includes: lymphoid organs
(lymph nodes, spleen, & thymus gland) and their products (lymphocytes & antibodies) and
macrophages (phagocytes found in the blood, brain, liver, lymph nodes, & spleen)
T Lymphocytes B lymphocytes Cell-mediated
a response of body
tissues to injury or
irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat
One of the main functions of inflammation is to bring
large numbers of phagocytes to the affected area. Once there, phagocytes ingest bacteria by flowing around them and engulfing them; this is phagocytosis . As a bacterium is ingested, it is neatly packaged within a vacuole formed by membrane pinched off from the cell membrane.
One or more lysosomes adhere to the vacuole and
release enzymes into it that kill the bacterium.
When infected by viruses or other intracellular parasites
(some types of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa], certain types of cells respond by secreting proteins called interferons .
These proteins trigger other cells to produce antiviral
proteins. Viruses produced in cells exposed to interferon are not effective at infecting new cells.
2 Major Disease Fighters of the
differentiate primarily in the thymus and are central to the control and
development of immune responses.
immune system cells released from the
bone marrow , which produce antibodies.
Involved in cell-mediated immunity
Originate from bone marrow stem cells & are processed in the thymus gland
When an Ag is encountered, the T-cell multiplies rapidly to produce cells that destroy the Ag
T Cell Lymphocytes
1. Attach to Ag & directly destroy them (cytotoxic
T-cell or T8 cells)
2. Secrete proteins (cytokines: interferons & interleukins) that help other cells respond to Ag
3. Act as helper cells (T4 cells) to promote antibody
synthesis by B cells and stimulate T cells.
4. Act as suppressor cells to inhibit B and T cells.
Involved in humoral immunity (Ab-mediated) Originate from bone marrow stem cells
When confronted with a specific type of Ag, B-cells transform into plasma cells produce antibodies called immunoglobulins :
IgA – mainly found in secretions
IgG – most abundant, crosses the placenta to provide immunity to
IgE – important in allergic reaction & parasitic infection IgM – produced in the primary response to Ag IgD – no known antibody function
Cell-mediated Immunity – bind to the surface
of other cells that display the antigen and trigger a
response. The response may involve other lymphocytes and leukocytes.
Antibody-mediated Immunity – Antibodies,
dissolved in blood, lymph and other body fluids bind the antigen and trigger a response to it.
the body’s ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins (poisons) that damage tissues & organs
1. Natural immunity – nonspecific 2. Acquired immunity – specific
1. Acquired active immunity 2. Acquired passive immunity
It is an immune response aimed at transplanted tissues Due to incompatibility of histocompatibility genes and
1/1 match in autografting & between identical twins ¼ match in siblings
1/1000 match in unrelated persons
Prevention: use of drugs & xrays to kill T-lymphocytes
(side effect: suppress immune system)
an allergy; an exaggerated or inappropriate
categorized based on which part of the
immune system that is involved and the onset of response
The science dealing with the
physical, chemical and biological properties and
features of cancer, including the causes and progression of the disease.
Doctors who specialize in oncology are called oncologists.
Introduction to ONCOLOGY
Cancer (CA) – a disease
characterized by unrestrained & excessive growth of cells in the body
CA cells compress, invade, & ultimately destroy surrounding normal tissue
may have local & metastatic
in females: lung CA, breast &
in males: lung, colorectal, &
I. Theory of Immunosurveillance
failure of the immune system to eradicate abnormal cells
II. Malignant transformation resulting from damage to the
genetic material, or DNA, of the cell
the processes of mitosis and protein synthesis are disturbed altered DNA & altered cellular programs make new signals that
lead to movement of cells, invasion of adjacent tissue, and metastasis
changes established in a CA cell is passed on to daughter cells
normal cells undergo apoptosis (spontaneous disintegration); CA
cells do not, live indefinitely
Environmental Agents or
1. Chemical carcinogens :
hydrocarbons in cigarettes, cigars, pipe smoke, & auto
insecticides, dyes, industrial chemicals, insulation
hormone: Diethylstilbestrol (DES) – synthetic oestrogen prescribed in the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s to women to prevent miscarriage causes malignant tumor CA of the vagina
drugs: estrogen – causes CA by stimulating proliferation of
cells in target organs such as uterine lining
Radiation : wave of energy
sunlight, x-rays, radioactive substances, nuclear
leukemia – occupational hazard of radiologists Hiroshima & Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors ultraviolet radiation in sunlight – especially for
Caucasians or fair-skinned individuals
Viruses : Oncogenic viruses
caused by RNA viruses (aka retroviruses) & DNA
Human T-Lymphocytic Virus (HTLV) – leukemia
Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) – Kaposi
sarcoma associated with AIDS Papilloma virus – cervical CA
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) – Burkitt lymphoma
Oncogene or CA causing gene
a piece of DNA whose activation is associated
with the conversion of a normal cell into a cancerous cell
ras oncogene – colon cancer myc – lymphoma
bcr-abl – chronic myelogenous leukemia
Susceptibility to some CA forms is transmitted from parents to offspring through defects in the DNA of the egg & sperm cells
tumors arise because of inherited or acquired abnormalities in suppressor genes (regulate growth, promote differentiation, & suppress oncogenes from causing cancer)
ex.: retinoblastoma, polyposis coli syndrome, & certain
forms of colon, breast, & kidney CA
genetic screening – to determine presence of cancer-